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D-Medicine & Nursing

Evaluation of Triage System for Vulnerable People in Disaster(要援護・介護者トリアージ評価)

大震災等の被災後の災害関連死を低減するために,病院や福祉避難所への搬送,避難所の環境整備やケアの優先順位付けの効率化に資する,避難所における要援護者トリアージの開発を行っている.まず,東日本大震災に関するヒアリング実地調査の結果と関連専門職,自治体職員等との意見交換から,トリアージ区分と地域住民が使用することを想定した基準案を作成し.これらを用いた要援護者トリアージの参加型シミュレーションを行うとともに,シミュレーション結果と参加者のフィードバックによる区分・基準案の修正・改善を繰り返すインタラクティブな開発を行っている.
(「災害時における要援護者トリアージの開発」,研究代表:日本赤十字看護大学,小原真理子 教授)

It is widely acknowledged that a triage system for vulnerable people in disasters is necessary for the efficient response to them and the avoidance of unpreventable death. Currently, a triage system for vulnerable people in evacuation shelters is under development by an interactive manner through scenario-based simulations. Through this process, feedback from the participants of the simulation are utilized for the modification and evaluation of the decision criteria for triage. This paper is to provide several quantitative analyses of the triage results obtained in the series of simulations and to discuss the possibility to apply these analyses to the design and evaluation of a new triage system. 
 
  
XML and XML-Schema of Vulnerable People

Cognitive Competency for Disaster Nursing(災害看護のための認知的コンピテンシー分析)

大震災等の災害下における看護サービスは,日頃培われた知識,技術,態度に大きく左右されるものと考えられる.稀にしか経験しない災害下の看護活動においても高いパフォーマンス保証する教育・訓練体系の構築を目指し.災害看護のコアコンピテンシー,特に災害下の看護師の認知(災害看護におけるサービスプロバイダーの認知)の解明を行った.災害看護オントロジーをベースとしたCTA手法の開発や,災害看護の知識体系構築システムを開発した.
(「災害拠点病院における医療職のコンピテンシーモデルの開発」,研究代表:首都大学東京・河原加代子 教授)

One of the challenges in applying CTA to disaster nursing is that because we do not have many real examples of big disasters such as the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake, it is virtually impossible to rely only on the lessons learned from experience in eliciting basic cognitive competencies. Our aim was therefore to use ontology as a framework to create virtual disaster contexts and develop questions about critical decision making under such contexts, and to design exercise scenarios.Because the service model consists of the modules of environments,providers, receivers, and tasks, it is easy to create various contexts using various combinations of these modules. In addition, the results of CTA can be used for further development and modification of the ontology. This method of iterative and co-creative ontology development is a kind of proactive risk discovery approach that is not based on hindsight (like conventional risk management approaches). In other words, it can revise risk models even if we do not have much actual disaster experience.

 

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